Bonne-Année, S., L. A. Kerepesi, J.A. Hess, J. Wesolowski, F. Paumet, J.B. Lok, T. J. Nolan, and D. Abraham. 2014. Extracellular traps are associated with human and mouse neutrophil and macrophage mediated killing of larval Strongyloides stercoralis. Microbes and Infection. 16:502-511.
This study demonstrated a novel mechanism utilized by human and mouse neutrophils to kill larval S. stercoralis. DNA based extracellular traps are released by neutrophils that ensnare parasite and thereby impede parasite movement and thus allow cells to come into contact with the worms and kill them.
Hess, J.A., B. Zhan, S. Bonne-Année, J. Deckman, M. E. Bottazzi, P. J. Hotez, T. R. Klei, S. Lustigman and D. Abraham. 2014. Vaccines to combat river blindness: expression, selection and formulation of vaccines against infection with Onchocerca volvulus in a mouse model. International Journal for Parasitology 44: 637-646.
Recombinant antigen vaccine candidates were tested in mice and three were identified that were shown to reproducibly induce protective immunity when administered individually, as fusion proteins or in combination, thus making these antigens strong candidates for inclusion in a vaccine to control onchocerciasis in humans.
Hess , J.A., B. Zhan, A.R. Torigian, J.B. Patton, N. Petrovsky, T. Zhan, M.E. Bottazzi, P.J. Hotez, T.R. Klei, S. Lustigman and D. Abraham. 2016. The immunomodulatory role of adjuvants in vaccines formulated with the recombinant antigens Ov-103 and Ov-RAL-2 against Onchocerca volvulus in mice. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 10: e0004797
Immunizing mice with two recombinant antigens in conjunction with the adjuvants alum, Advax 2 and MF59 induced significant levels of larval killing. The mechanism of protective immunity induced by these vaccines appears to be multifactorial with roles for cytokines, chemokines, antibody and specific effector cells.
Patton, J.B., S. Bonne-Année, J. Deckman, J.A. Hess, A. Torigian, T.J. Nolan, Z. Wang, S.A. Kliewer, A.C. Durham, J.J. Lee, M.L. Eberhard, D. J. Mangelsdorf, J. B. Lok, and D. Abraham. 2018. Methylprednisolone acetate induces, and Δ7-dafachronic acid suppresses, Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection in NSG mice. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 115: 204–209.
NSG mice, which have a reduced innate immune response and lack adaptive immunity, develop a complete infection with S. stercoralis and hyperinfection if treated with steroids. Treatment with Δ7-dafachronic acid, an agonist of the parasite nuclear receptor Ss-DAF-12, significantly reduced the worm burden in mice undergoing hyperinfection with S. stercoralis